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1.1 This test method covers the use of an angled launch ramp to initiate rolling of a sphere or nearly spherical shape on a flat horizontal surface to determine the rolling friction characteristics of a given spherical shape on a given surface.
1.1.1 Steel balls on a surface plate were used in interlaboratory tests (see Appendix X1). Golf balls on a green, soccer and lacrosse balls on playing surfaces, bowling balls on an a lane, basketballs on hardwood, and marbles on composite surface were tested in the development of this test method, but the test applies to any sphere rolling on any flat horizontal surface.
1.1.2 The rolling friction of spheres on horizontal surfaces is affected by the spherical shape’s stiffness, radius of curvature, surface texture, films on the surface, the nature of the counterface surface; there are many factors to consider. This test method takes all of these factors into consideration. The spherical shape of interest is rolled on the surface of interest using a standard ramp to initiate rolling and standard techniques to measure and treat the rolled distance after leaving the ramp.
1.1.3 This test method produces a rolling resistance number on a specific spherical shape on a specific surface. It is intended for comparing similar tribosystems. For example, the rolling resistances of marbles on a particular surface are not to be compared with the rolling resistance of soccer balls on grass, because their masses and diameters are very different as are the counterface surfaces on which they roll.
1.1.4 Different launch ramps for are appropriate for different types of spherical shapes. If a sphere of interest cannot be accommodated with using one of the launch ramps discussed in Appendix X1 and Appendix X2, a different launch ramp can be developed and added with future revisions to this test method.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
G40 Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion
G115 Guide for Measuring and Reporting Friction Coefficients
G143 Test Method for Measurement of Web/Roller Friction Characteristics
ICS Number Code 17.040.20 (Properties of surfaces)