ASTM F1166-95a(2006)

    Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities

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    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to incorporate human capabilities into a design.

    1.2 The purpose of this practice is to present human engineering design criteria, principles, and practices to achieve mission success through integration of the human into the vessel system, subsystem, and equipment with the goals of effectiveness, simplicity, efficiency, reliability, and safety for operation, training, and maintenance.

    1.3 This practice applies to the design of vessels, systems, subsystems, and equipment. Nothing in this practice shall be construed as limiting the selection of hardware, materials, or processes to the specific items described herein. Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions, this practice is applicable to design of vessel systems, subsystems, and equipment for use by both men and women.

    1.4 Copies of specifications, standards, drawings, and publications required by contractors in connection with specific procurement functions should be obtained from the procuring activity or as directed by the contracting officer.

    1.5 This practice is not intended to be a criterion for limiting use of material already in the field in areas such as lift repetition or temperature exposure time.

    1.6 Force Limits—If it is known that an item is to be used by an already established occupational specialty, for which physical qualification requirements for entry into that specialty are also established, any discrepancy between the force criteria of this practice and the physical qualification requirements shall be resolved in favor of the latter. In this event, the least stringent physical qualification requirement of all specialties which may operate, maintain, transport, supply, move, lift, or otherwise manipulate the item, in the manner being considered, is selected as a maximum design force limit.

    1.7 Manufacturing Tolerances—When manufacturing tolerances are not perceptible to the user, this practice shall not be construed as preventing the use of components whose dimensions are within a normal manufacturing upper or lower limit tolerance of the dimensions specified herein.

    1.8 This practice is divided into the following sections:

    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    SectionTitle
    1 Scope
    2 Referenced Documents
    3 Terminology
    4 Significance and Use
    5 Control/Display Integration
    6 Visual Displays, General Information
    7 Location and Arrangement of Visual Displays
    8 Coding of Visual Displays
    9 Transilluminated Displays
    10 Scale Indicators
    11 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Displays
    12 Large-Screen Displays
    13 Other Displays
    14 Audio Displays, General Information
    15 Audio Warnings
    16 Characteristics of Audible Alarms
    17 Signal Characteristics in Relation to Operational Conditions and Objectives
    18 Verbal Warning Signals
    19 Controls for Audio Warning and Caution Devices
    20 Speech Transmission Equipment
    21 Controls, General Information
    22 Arrangement and Grouping of Controls
    23 Coding of Controls
    24 Rotary Controls
    25 Discrete Linear Controls
    26 Continuous Adjustment Linear Controls
    27 General Requirements for Labeling
    28 Label Content
    29 Specific Requirements by Label Type
    30 Anthropometry
    31 Workspace Design Requirements
    32 Environment
    33 Maintainability
    34 Accessibility
    35 Cases
    36 Lubrication
    37 Fasteners
    38 Unit Design for Efficient Manual Handling
    39 Handwheel Torque
    40 Equipment Mounting
    41 Conductors
    42 Connectors
    43 Electrical Wires and Cables
    44 Test Points
    45 Test Equipment
    46 Failure Indications and Fuse Requirements
    47 Hydraulic Systems
    48 Design of Equipment For Remote Handling
    49 Small Systems and Equipment
    50 Operational and Maintenance Vehicles
    51 Hazards and Safety
    52 User-Computer Interface
    53 Data Display
    54 Text/Program Editing
    55 Audio Displays, Interface
    56 Interactive Control
    LIST OF FIGURES
    FigureTitle
    1 Angle of Incidence
    2 Example of Display/Equipment Relationship in Main Propulsion Engine Room with Two Medium Speed Diesel Engines
    3 Example of Control/Display/Equipment Relationship in Auxiliary Machinery Space with Two Ship Service Generators
    4 Example of Control/Display/Equipment Relationship in Machinery Space with Pump, Motor Controller, and Gage Board Located at Vertical Beam
    5 CHT Pump Room with Various Options for Locating the Two Motor Controllers and Their Corresponding Gage Boards Given the Location of the Two Pumps
    6 Preferred and Acceptable Alternatives for Multiple Row/Column Display and Control Arrangement
    7 Vertical and Horizontal Visual Field
    8 Lines of Sight
    9 Scale of Markings
    10 Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives
    11 Fixed-Scale Azimuth Dials
    12 Shape and Color Coding Operating Ranges
    13 Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays
    14 Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings
    15 Relative Position of Scale Marks, Numerals, and Pointers on Circular Dials
    16 Relative Position of Scale Marks, Numerals, and Pointers on Arcs and Circular Dials
    17 Drum-Type Counter Design
    18 Acceptable Alarm Types for Emergency and Primary Alarms
    19 Control Motion Expectancy
    20 Foot-Operated Switches
    21 Pedals
    22 Foot-Operated Controls
    23 Leg Strength at Various Knee and Thigh Angles
    24 Rotary Selector Controls
    25 Rotating Knob Separation
    26 Keylock Criteria
    27 Keylock Switch Criteria
    28 Thumbwheel Orientation and Movement
    29 Discrete Thumbwheel Control
    30 Knobs
    31 Recommended Knob Shapes
    32 Easily Recognizable Knob Shapes
    33 Ganged Knobs
    34 Thumbwheel Adjustment Controls
    35 Cranks
    36 Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks
    37 Handwheels
    38 Recommended Mounting Heights for Valve Handwheels
    39 Reaching Limits for Bending, Squatting, or Standing on Ladders
    40 Pushbutton Switches
    41 Toggle Switches
    42 Toggle Switch Orientation for "ON"
    43 Legend Switch
    44 Rocker Switches
    45 Slide Switches
    46 Push-Pull Controls
    47 Lever
    48 Slide Levers
    49 Isotonic Joysticks
    50 Ball Controls
    51 Independent Symbols
    52 Label Specifications
    53 Standing Body Dimensions
    54 Seated Body Dimensions
    55 Depth and Breadth Dimensions
    56 Circumferences and Surface Dimensions
    57 Hand and Foot Dimensions
    58 Head and Face Dimensions
    59 Anthropometric Data for Body Positions Involved in Work Activities
    60 95th Percentile Gloved-Hand Dimensions (Male)
    61 Helmet Dimensions
    62 Aircrewman's Helmet (Size Extra Large)
    63 Range of Human Motion
    64 Mobile Workspace Dimensions
    65 Standing Workspace Dimensions-Cabinets and Electrical Equipment Racks
    66 Standing Workspace Dimension-CRTs and Table
    67 Standing Workspace Dimensions-Consoles and Work Benches
    68 Standing Workspace for Typical Work Positions
    69 Display (Top) and Control (Bottom) Locations for Standing Crew Work Stations
    70 Seated Workspace Dimensions
    71 Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk
    72 Seating at CRT-Type Work Stations
    73 Swing-Away Seat for Short-Term Operations
    74 Standard Console Dimensions Key
    75 Example of One- or Two-Tier Wrap-Around Console
    76 Examples of Three-Tier Consoles
    77 Example of a Desk Top Console
    78 Preferred Viewing Area
    79 Seated Optimum Manual Control Space
    80 Type of Ladder, Stair, or Ramp to be Used in Relation to Angle of Ascent
    81 Stair Dimensions
    82 Incline-Ladder Dimensions
    83 Vertical-Ladder Dimensions
    84 Well-Designed Work Platform
    85 Door Dimensions
    86 Hatches Mounted Overhead
    87 Hatches Mounted on Vertical Walls
    88 Hatch Dimensions
    89 Walkway and Passageway Dimensions
    90 Effective Temperature Scale
    91 Windchill Chart
    92 Equivalent Chill Temperature
    93 Ventilation Requirements
    94 Workspace Reflectance Values
    95 Permissible Distance Between a Speaker and Listener's for Specified Voice Levels and Ambient Noise Levels
    96 Range of Acceptable Reverberation Time
    97 Vibration Exposure Criteria for Longitudinal (Upper Figure) and Transverse (Lower Figure) Directions with Respect to Body Axis
    98 The 90 % Motion Sickness Protection Limits for Human Exposure to Very Low Frequency Vibration
    99 Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Arm)
    100 Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
    101 Crosslegged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
    102 Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
    103 Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Arm)
    104 Access Opening Dimensions
    105 Minimal Two-Hand and Finger Access
    106 Covers and Accesses
    107 Covers and Cases
    108 Examples of Push-Pull Forces
    109 Minimum Handle Dimensions
    110 Handwheel Torque
    111 Methods of Identifying Plugs and Receptacles to Prevent Mismatching
    112 Cable Arrangements
    113 Suggested Cable Arrangement in Junction Box for Easy Checking
    114 Preformed Cables
    115 Fluid Line Connector Recommendations
    116 Anatomical Limits on Axially Symmetrical Ocular Metal Part
    117 Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures
    118 Required Distance Between Hazard and Barrier
    LIST OF TABLES
    TableTitle
    1 Metric Equivalents, Abbreviations, and Prefixes
    2 Coding of Simple Indicator Lights
    3 Application of Various Types of Mechanical Displays
    4 Character Sizes for Mechanical Counters
    5 Group Viewing of Optical Projection Displays
    6 Range Ring Values
    7 Functional Evaluation of Audio Signals
    8 Intelligibility Criteria for Voice Communications Systems
    9 Control Selection Criteria
    10 Recommended Manual Controls
    11 Conventional Control Movement Stereotypes
    12 Minimum Separation Distances for Controls
    13 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Coding
    14 Recommended Control Colors (FED-STD-595)
    15 Knob Detentes Placement
    16 Keyboards, Inch-pound Units
    17 Keyboards, SI Units
    18 Limiting Dimensions for Free-Moving X-Y Controller
    19 Arm Strength
    20 Hand and Thumb-Finger Strength
    21 Character Size Versus Luminance
    22 Anthropometric Data
    23 Range of Human Motion
    24 Mobile Work Space Dimensions
    25 Standing Work Space Dimensions for Work Clearances
    26 Seated Work Space Dimensions
    27 Standard Console Dimensions
    28 Human Performance Effects at Various Effective Temperatures
    29 Physical and Perceptual Responses to Various Temperatures
    30 Temperature and Its Effect on the Comfort of the Extremities
    31 Human Reaction to Windchill
    32 Specific Task Illumination Requirements
    33 Recommendations for Display Lighting
    34 Low-Frequency and Infrasonic Noise Limits to Prevent Ear Injury
    35 Sound Exposure to Avoid Deafness
    36 Maximum Permissible Sound Pressure Level
    37 OSHA Permissible Daily Noise
    38 Effects of Noise on Human Performance
    39 Effects of High-Level Noise on Human Performance
    40 Upper Noise Limits Recommended for Military Facilities
    41 Comfort Limits for Noise by Octave Band
    42 Noxious Exhaust Products of Engine Fuels
    43 Design Weight Limits
    44 Static Muscle Strength Data
    45 Weight and Dimensions of Portable Test Equipment
    46 General Comparison Fuses and Circuit Breakers
    47 Recommended Clearances Around Equipment Operator's Station to Accommodate 95th Percentile Male Dressed in Arctic Clothing. Operator Seat in Rear Most Position
    48 Temperature Limits
    49 Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Effects
    50 Allowable Exposure Limits to Some Toxic Gases
    51 System Response Times


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    Overall References

    ABSGuidanceNotesfort April 2003

    MIL-STD-1472F Department of Defense Design Criteria Standard: Human Engineering


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 47.020.01 (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 25111900(Marine craft systems and subassemblies)


    DOI: 10.1520/F1166-95AR06

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