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1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the flash point of petroleum products in the temperature range from 40 to 360°C by a manual Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus or an automated Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus.
Note 1—Flash point determination as above 250°C can be performed, however, the precisions have not been determined above this temperature. For residual fuels, precisions have not been determined for flash points above 100°C.
1.2 Procedure A is applicable to distillate fuels (diesel, kerosine, heating oil, turbine fuels), new lubricating oils, and other homogeneous petroleum liquids not included in the scope of Procedure B.
1.3 Procedure B is applicable to residual fuel oils, cutback residua, used lubricating oils, mixtures of petroleum liquids with solids, petroleum liquids that tend to form a surface film under test conditions, or are petroleum liquids of such kinematic viscosity that they are not uniformly heated under the stirring and heating conditions of Procedure A.
1.4 These test methods is applicable for the detection of contamination of relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable materials with volatile or flammable materials.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
Note 2—It has been common practice in flash point standards for many decades to alternately use a C–scale or an F–scale thermometer for temperature measurement. Although the scales are close in increments, they are not equivalent. Because the F–scale thermometer used in this procedure is graduated in 5° increments, it is not possible to read it to the 2°C equivalent increment of 3.6°F. Therefore, for the purposes of application of the procedure of the test method for the separate temperature scale thermometers, different increments must be used. In this test method, the following protocol has been adopted: When a temperature is intended to be a converted equivalent, it will appear in parentheses following the SI unit, for example 370°C (698°F). When a temperature is intended to be a rationalized unit for the alternate scale, it will appear after “or,” for example, 2°C or 5°F.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.4, 7.1, 9.3, 9.4, 11.1.2, 11.1.4, 11.1.8, 11.2.2, and 12.1.2.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D3941 Test Method for Flash Point by the Equilibrium Method With a Closed-Cup Apparatus
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals
E502 Test Method for Selection and Use of ASTM Standards for the Determination of Flash Point of Chemicals by Closed Cup Methods
ISO StandardsGuide 35 Certification of Reference Material--General and Statistical Principles
ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)