ASTM D2435-96

    Historical Standard: ASTM D2435-96 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils

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    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining the magnitude and rate of consolidation of soil when it is restrained laterally and drained axially while subjected to incrementally applied controlled-stress loading. Two alternative procedures are provided as follows:

    1.1.1 Test Method A -This test method is performed with constant load increment duration of 24 h, or multiples thereof. Time-deformation readings are required on a minimum of two load increments.

    1.1.2 Test Method B-Time-deformation readings are required on all load increments. Successive load increments are applied after 100% primary consolidation is reached, or at constant time increments as described in Test Method A.

    Note 1-The determination of the rate and magnitude of consolidation of soil when it is subjected to controlled-strain loading is covered by Test Method D 4186.

    1.2 This test method is most commonly performed on undisturbed samples of fine grained soils naturally sedimented in water, however, the basic test procedure is applicable, as well, to specimens of compacted soils and undisturbed samples of soils formed by other processes such as weathering or chemical alteration. Evaluation techniques specified in this test method are generally applicable to soils naturally sedimented in water. Tests performed on other soils such as compacted and residual (weathered or chemically altered) soils may require special evaluation techniques.

    1.3 It shall be the responsibility of the agency requesting this test to specify the magnitude and sequence of each load increment, including the location of a rebound cycle, if required, and, for Test Method A, the load increments for which time-deformation readings are desired.

    Note 2-Time-deformation readings are required to determine the time for completion of primary consolidation and for evaluating the coefficient of consolidation, cv . Since cv varies with stress level and load increment (loading or unloading), the load increments with timed readings must be selected with specific reference to the individual project. Alternatively, the requesting agency may specify Test Method B wherein the time-deformation readings are taken on all load increments.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate and given for guidance only. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.

    1.4.1 In the engineering profession it is customary practice to use, interchangeably, units representing both mass and force, unless dynamic calculations ( F = Ma ) are involved. This implicitly combines two separate systems of units, that is, the absolute system and the gravimetric system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine two separate systems within a single standard. This test method has been written using SI units; however, inch-pound conversions are given in the gravimetric system, where the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). The use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lb/ft should not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

    D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes

    D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

    D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)

    D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D4186 Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading

    D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples

    D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils

    D4452 Practice for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples

    D4546 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Cohesive Soils

    D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data

    D6027 Practice for Calibrating Linear Displacement Transducers for Geotechnical Purposes


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D2435-96

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