ASTM D1557-09

    Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))

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    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover laboratory compaction methods used to determine the relationship between molding water content and dry unit weight of soils (compaction curve) compacted in a 4- or 6-in. (101.6- or 152.4-mm) diameter mold with a 10.00-lbf. (44.48-N) rammer dropped from a height of 18.00 in. (457.2 mm) producing a compactive effort of 56 000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2700 kN-m/m3).

    Note 1—The equipment and procedures are the same as proposed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers in 1945. The modified effort test (see 3.1.2) is sometimes referred to as the Modified Proctor Compaction Test.

    1.1.1 Soils and soil-aggregate mixtures are to be regarded as natural occurring fine- or coarse-grained soils, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed soils or aggregates such as gravel or crushed rock. Hereafter referred to as either soil or material.

    1.2 These test methods apply only to soils (materials) that have 30 % or less by mass of their particles retained on the ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve and have not been previously compacted in the laboratory; that is, do not reuse compacted soil.

    1.2.1 For relationships between unit weights and molding water contents of soils with 30 % or less by weight of material retained on the ¾ -in. (19.0-mm) sieve to unit weights and molding water contents of the fraction passing the ¾ -in. (19.0-mm) sieve, see Practice D4718.

    1.3 Three alternative methods are provided. The method used shall be as indicated in the specification for the material being tested. If no method is specified, the choice should be based on the material gradation.

    1.3.1 Method A:

    1.3.1.1 Mold4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.

    1.3.1.2 MaterialPassing No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve.

    1.3.1.3 LayersFive.

    1.3.1.4 Blows per layer25.

    1.3.1.5 UsageMay be used if 25 % or less by mass of the material is retained on the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve. However, if 5 to 25 % by mass of the material is retained on the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve, Method A can be used but oversize corrections will be required (See 1.4) and there are no advantages to using Method A in this case.

    1.3.1.6 Other UseIf this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Methods B or C may be used.

    1.3.2 Method B:

    1.3.2.1 Mold4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.

    1.3.2.2 MaterialPassing 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve.

    1.3.2.3 LayersFive.

    1.3.2.4 Blows per layer25.

    1.3.2.5 UsageMay be used if 25 % or less by mass of the material is retained on the 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve. However, if 5 to 25 % of the material is retained on the 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve, Method B can be used but oversize corrections will be required (See 1.4). In this case, the only advantages to using Method B rather than Method C are that a smaller amount of sample is needed and the smaller mold is easier to use.

    1.3.2.6 Other UsageIf this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Method C may be used.

    1.3.3 Method C:

    1.3.3.1 Mold6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter.

    1.3.3.2 MaterialPassing ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.

    1.3.3.3 LayersFive.

    1.3.3.4 Blows per layer56.

    1.3.3.5 UsageMay be used if 30 % or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.

    1.3.4 The 6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter mold shall not be used with Method A or B.

    Note 2—Results have been found to vary slightly when a material is tested at the same compactive effort in different size molds, with the smaller mold size typically yielding larger values of unit weight and density (1).

    1.4 If the test specimen contains more than 5 % by mass of oversize fraction (coarse fraction) and the material will not be included in the test, corrections must be made to the unit weight and molding water content of the test specimen or to the appropriate field in-place unit weight (or density) test specimen using Practice D4718.

    1.5 This test method will generally produce a well-defined maximum dry unit weight for non-free draining soils. If this test method is used for free-draining soils the maximum unit weight may not be well defined, and can be less than obtained using Test Methods D4253.

    1.6 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by these test methods.

    1.6.1 For purposes of comparing measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.6.2 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.

    1.7 The values in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in SI units are provided for information only, except for units of mass. The units for mass are given in SI units only, g or kg.

    1.7.1 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. These test methods have been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as a nonconformance with this standard.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate

    C136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

    C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))

    D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

    D2168 Practices for Calibration of Laboratory Mechanical-Rammer Soil Compactors

    D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

    D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)

    D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples

    D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table

    D4718 Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles

    D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing

    D4914 Test Methods for Density and Unit Weight of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit

    D5030 Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data

    D6913 Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis

    E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves

    E319 Practice for the Evaluation of Single-Pan Mechanical Balances


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D1557-09

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