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1.1 The purpose of these test methods is to allow detection of the presence of intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steels to the extent that toughness or corrosion resistance is affected significantly. These test methods will not necessarily detect losses of toughness or corrosion resistance attributable to other causes.
1.2 Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steels are susceptible to the formation of intermetallic compounds during exposures in the temperature range from approximately 600 to 1750°F (320 to 955°C). The speed of these precipitation reactions is a function of composition and thermal or thermomechanical history of each individual piece. The presence of these phases is detrimental to toughness and corrosion resistance.
1.3 Correct heat treatment of duplex stainless steels can eliminate these detrimental phases. Rapid cooling of the product provides the maximum resistance to formation of detrimental phases by subsequent thermal exposures.
1.4 Compliance with the chemical and mechanical requirements for the applicable product specification does not necessarily indicate the absence of detrimental phases in the product.
1.5 These test methods include the following:
1.5.1 Test Method ASodium Hydroxide Etch Test for Classification of Etch Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections ).
1.5.2 Test Method BCharpy Impact Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections ).
1.5.3 Test Method CFerric Chloride Corrosion Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections ).
1.6 The presence of detrimental intermetallic phases is readily detected in all three tests, provided that a sample of appropriate location and orientation is selected. Because the occurrence of intermetallic phases is a function of temperature and cooling rate, it is essential that the tests be applied to the region of the material experiencing the conditions most likely to promote the formation of an intermetallic phase. In the case of common heat treatment, this region will be that which cooled most slowly. Except for rapidly cooled material, it may be necessary to sample from a location determined to be the most slowly cooled for the material piece to be characterized.
1.7 The tests do not determine the precise nature of the detrimental phase but rather the presence or absence of an intermetallic phase to the extent that it is detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of the material.
1.8 Examples of the correlation of thermal exposures, the occurrence of intermetallic phases, and the degradation of toughness and corrosion resistance are given in and .
1.9 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
G48 Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution