by George E. Totten, Ph.D

ca. 4000 BC On the banks of the Euphrates River in an area that will become known as Iraq, archeological exploration finds the site of an oil seep known locally as “the fountains of pitch,” where asphalt is quarried for use as mortar between building stones. Asphalt is also used as a waterproofing agent for baths, pottery and boats. The term “petroleum” comes from “petros” (Greek for stone or rock) and “oleum” (Latin for oil). An ancient term for petroleum is “rock oil.”

347 AD Oil wells are drilled in China up to 800 feet [240 m] deep using bits attached to bamboo poles.

1594 Oil wells are hand dug at Baku, Persia, up to 115 feet [35 metres] deep.

1815 Oil is produced in the United States as an undesirable byproduct from brine wells in Pennsylvania.

1848 The first modern oil well is drilled in Asia, on the Aspheron Peninsula northeast of Baku.

1849 Canadian Abraham Gesner develops a process to distill kerosine (coal oil) from cannel coal and bituminous shale; he will become known as the “father of the petroleum industry.” Kerosine is easy to produce, cheap, smells better than animal-based fuels when burned, and does not spoil on the shelf as does whale oil.

1853 Kerosine is extracted from petroleum.

1854 The first oil wells in Europe are drilled 30 to 50 metres deep at Bobrka, Poland.

1854 The Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company, the first oil company in the United States, is formed.

1857 Michael Dietz patents a clean-burning lamp that utilizes the first practical flat-wick burner to be especially designed for the new fuel oil, kerosine. Kerosine rapidly replaces whale oil and creates a new market for crude oil. When whale oil goes on to drop to 40 cents a gallon in 1895, refined petroleum sells for less than 7 cents a gallon. The new Dietz kerosine lanterns force whale oil lamps off the market.

1858 The first oil well in North America is drilled in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada.

1859 Edwin L. Drake opens the first commercially successful oil well in the United States drilled for the sole purpose of finding oil. The Drake Well is a 70-foot [21 m] well located on the edge of the town of Titusville, Pa. Oil is shipped in 42-gallon [159 L] barrels. The 42-gallon barrel was established in 1482 by King Edward IV as the standard for the packing of fish. The drilling of the Drake Well begins an international search for petroleum.

1862 Early problems disposing of the gasoline fraction lead to the contamination of kerosine resulting in subsequent fires, and this leads to the development and standardization of flash-point methods. The United Kingdom enacts the Petroleum Act, which defines a “flammable liquid” as one having a flash point below 100°F [38°C].

1865 Titusville is slow to react to the building of pipelines. However, a six-inch gravity pipeline (no pumps) is completed this year by the Pennsylvania Tubing and Transportation Company. This line delivers 7,000 barrels of oil per day to its terminus at the mouth of the Pithole Creek and is expedited by a gradient of 52 feet [10 meters per kilometer] per mile. The town of Oleopolis, located at the mouth of Pithole Creek on the property of the Baltimore Petroleum Company, erects a 15,000-barrel iron petroleum storage tank. Within two decades, more than 80 percent of the world’s petroleum consumption will be supplied by Pennsylvania oil fields.

1872 The Petroleum Producers Association endorses the 42-gallon [159 L] barrel as the shipping standard, one of the first “consensus standards” in the petroleum industry. One of the problems in the petroleum shipping industry had been the standard volume of a barrel of oil. In 1866, an Oil City newspaper had published the following: “The oil producers have issued the following circular: ‘Whereas, It is conceded by all producers of crude petroleum on Oil Creek that the present system of selling crude oil by the barrel, without regard to the size, is injurious to the oil trade, alike to the buyer and seller, as buyers, with an ordinary sized barrel cannot compete with those with large ones. We, therefore, mutually agree and bind ourselves that from this date we will sell no crude by the barrel or package, but by the gallon only. An allowance of two gallons will be made on the gauge of each and every 40 gallons in favor of the buyer.’” M.C. Egbert, an oilman in Oil Creek Valley, headed a group of about 30 oil producers who created and endorsed this proclamation.

1873 Berthold Pensky, a mechanic at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute in Berlin-Dahlem (later known as the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung (German Federal Institution for Materials Testing)), founds his own company and produces Pensky-Martens flash point testers, Abel-Pensky flash point testers, and other oil testing equipment.

1876 Nicolaus Otto invents the first four-stroke internal combustion engine, the Otto Cycle Engine, which he uses to build a motorcycle.

1878 Karl Benz develops a two-cycle spark ignition engine, which is followed by the development of a four-cycle engine. In 1885, he will build a gasoline-engine-powered “motorized tricycle.” The following year, he patents the first “carriage with a gasoline engine.” Until now, gasoline was an unwanted fraction of petroleum that caused many house fires because of its tendency to explode when used in kerosine lamps. This is why flash-point characterization methods such as the Pensky-Martens and the Abel-Pensky methods (see 1873) were developed and deemed among the most important characterization tests for liquid fuels.

1882 American industry is booming in many sectors, including steel, railroads and banking and the nation’s fledgling petroleum industry is growing to meet increasing demand for kerosine, lubricants and greases. John D. Rockefeller has acquired a diversity of petroleum interests and organizes them under the Standard Oil Trust this year. International expansion will occur during the remainder of the century, enabled by bulk shipments using large “kerosine clippers.”

1885 The first gasoline pump is manufactured by Sylvanus F. Bowser of Ft. Wayne, Ind., and delivered to Jake D. Gumper, also of Ft. Wayne. The gasoline pump tank had marble valves and wooden plungers and had a capacity of one barrel.

1886 The first modern oil tanker, the Gluckauf, is built for Germany by England but her career will be short lived. In 1893 she will run aground on Fire Island, N.Y., and will not be refloated. In this year, 99 percent of the oil exported from the United States is carried in barrels. By 1906, 99 percent of it will be carried in bulk.

1892 The demand for oil is encouraged by Rudolf Diesel’s development of his internal compression ignition engine at the Augsburg Machine Works in Augsburg, Germany. A patent will be issued in the following year.

1893 The Duryea brothers build the first internal combustion vehicle in the United States.

1896 Henry Ford builds his “quadricycle.”

1898 Louis Renault builds his first automobile. It has a De Dion engine but Renault designed and built the chassis.

1898 ASTM International, originally known as the American Section of the International Association for Testing Materials, and later as the American Society of Testing and Materials, is formed.

1900 The advent of the automobile is welcomed as a relief from pollution. New York City, with its 120,000 horses, scrapes up 2.4 million pounds [1.1 x 106 kg] of manure every day.

1901 Henry Ford forms the Henry Ford Company but will later quit in a dispute. The company will become known as Cadillac with the first Cadillac automobile manufactured in 1902. In 1903, Henry Ford will form the Ford Motor Co. in Michigan. (During this time, steering wheels replaced tillers.) In 1908, the first Model T will roll off the Ford assembly line.

1903 At Kitty Hawk, N.C., the Wright brothers achieve the first powered, manned, heavier-than-air, controlled flight.

1904 Henry Royce builds his first motor car and, with Charles Rolls, begins producing the Rolls-Royce automobile.

1904 ASTM Committee N on Standard Tests for Lubricants is formed when the Society’s Executive Committee discusses the need for standards in the petroleum industry during their meeting at the Engineers Club in Philadelphia, Pa., on Oct. 22. Committee N will go on to hold its first meeting in May 1905 in Pittsburgh, Pa. Its membership will consist of 10 people.

1906 Gasoline stations open for business across the United States, but dispensing is still done mostly by buckets and funnels. Metered or graduated systems will not be used until after 1911.

1908 The General Motors Company is formed from Oldsmobile (1896), Cadillac (1902) and Buick (1903).

1910 Alfa Romeo is formed.

1911 Gilbert & Barker introduce curb pumps with measuring devices; the Beman Auto Oil Can Co. of Meadville, Pa., is already selling their “New Improved Automatic Tank.”

1911 The U.S. Supreme Court orders the dissolution of Standard Oil Trust, resulting in the creation 34 new refining companies.

1911 U.S. kerosine output is eclipsed for the first time by a formerly discarded byproduct: gasoline.

1913 William Meriam Burton receives a patent for his cracking process, which converts oil to gasoline.

1913 The first drive-up gasoline station opens in Pittsburgh, Pa.

1915 Ford Motor Company develops a farm tractor.

1917 Pacific Aero Products Company changes its name to Boeing Airplane Company.

1917 ASTM Standard D 47, Methods for Specific Gravity of Lubricants, is issued, containing a variety of testing methods, including some that are not specific-gravity methods. In 1921, ASTM D 88, Test Method for Saybolt Viscosity, will be published, based on a viscosity method originally incorporated in D 47. Other methods will be spun off from D 47, including: ASTM D 97, Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (1921); D 189, Method for Conradson Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products (1924); and D 287, Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method) (1928). D 47 will be discontinued in 1928.

1918 Committee N issues its first standard, D 56, Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester.

1919 The American Petroleum Institute is established.

1920 Committee N is renamed D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants; its scope is broadened to be consistent with its new title.

1921 ASTM D 86, Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, is approved. This will become one of the most-used ASTM standards and will become a joint ASTM/Institute of Petroleum standard in 1964. D 86 will be one of the three building blocks of petroleum standardization with the publication of ASTM D 445, Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity) (see 1937), and D 1655, Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels (see 1959).

1921 ASTM D 89, Copper Corrosion by Petroleum Products, is published. In 1922, it will be reissued as tentative standard D 130, Copper Corrosion by Petroleum Products, and will become a full consensus standard in 1930. D 130 will undergo a major revision in 1949, and will be retitled Method for Detection of Copper Corrosion from Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test in 1956.

1921 ASTM D 90, Sulfur in Petroleum Products by the Lamp-Gravimetric Method, is issued and will be active as a tentative standard until 1955. It will become a test method in 1970 as D 1266, Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method).

1922 ASTM D 128, Methods for Analysis of Lubricating Grease, is approved and published. This test method outlines methods of chemical analysis of lubricating greases, including those based on synthetic lubricating fluids and non-soap thickeners.

1922 Thomas Midgley pioneers the use of tetraethyl lead as an antiknock additive in gasoline.

1922 Committee D02 is now composed of 19 subcommittees dealing with products and properties for fuels and lubricating oils.

1923 Committee D02 membership has grown from 10 members in 1905 to 80 members. These men are creating the foundational standard guidelines that will guide D02 for the next 80-plus years.

1923 For the first time in U.S. history, ethyl gasoline is marketed (in Dayton, Ohio).

1923 As technical director at Daimler in Stuttgart, Germany, Ferdinand Porsche develops the legendary supercharged Mercedes Benz SS and SSK sports cars, among others.

1924 ASTM D 187, Method for Burning Quality of Kerosine, is issued and will become a full standard in 1927. This standard covers kerosine used for illuminating purposes (kerosine or “coal oil” lamps as they were initially called). D 187 will be followed in 1925 by ASTM D 219, Method for Burning Quality of Long-Time Burning Oil for Railway Use, a tentative standard that will become a full standard in 1927, covering railway semaphore signal lamps. In 1978, a kerosine specification (D 3699, Specification for Kerosine) will be issued.

1925 The Chrysler Corporation is organized.

1925 ASTM D 217, Methods for Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease, is issued. This test method covers tests for performing full scale, prolonged worked, and block penetrations on lubricating grease. ASTM D 1403, Methods for Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease Using One-Quarter and One-Half Scale Cone Equipment, will be added in 1956 to allow for penetration measurements on smaller grease samples.

1927 Charles Lindberg makes the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic.

1928 The first edition of Special Technical Publication STP 7, Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products, is issued, which is now known as Manual 1. 2003 will see the publication of the 7th edition.

1930 ASTM D 323, Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method), is published. Until now, a test method developed by the Interstate Commerce Commission and prescribed by the Bureau of Explosives in 1912 has been used.

1930 Committee D02 forms Technical Division A, now Subcommittee A on Gasoline, with three subgroups: Subgroup 1 on Gum, Subgroup 2 on Corrosion and Subgroup 3 on Vapor Lock. The division is tasked to develop a gasoline specification.

1930 As the market grows, petroleum distribution continues to be an important issue in order to serve the world market. The advent of new technologies, such as Jersey Standard’s process for boosting fuel octane through the use of additives and blending technology (e.g., “Blue Sonoco”), also facilitates both market growth and improved performance.

1933 The National Exchange Group is formed within Committee D02. The primary missions of the NEG are the measurement of engine test standards’ precision, evaluation of factors affecting ratings, and assisting participating laboratories in maintaining interlaboratory testing reproducibility. By 2004, the NEG will operate an X-check program whereby laboratories periodically test gasolines comparatively for octane number and diesel fuels for cetane number.

1933 ASTM D 357, Method of Test for Knock Characteristics of Motor Fuels, is issued. The phrase “by the Motor Method” will be added to the title in 1947 when D 908, Method of Test for Knock Characteristics of Motor Fuels by the Research Method, is issued, to differentiate the two standards. D 357 will be withdrawn in 1969 and replaced by D 2700, Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel.

1933 Toyota Industries Corporation establishes an automobile department, which will separate from the parent company in 1937 to become Toyota Motor Corporation.

1934 Section V on Specifications is created in Technical Division A on Gasoline.

1934 ASTM D 381, Method for Gum Content of Gasoline, is published. The increased ownership of automobiles leads to increased demand for gasoline, which in turn leads to the development of improved cracking operations. This leads to more olefins in fuel, hence a greater tendency to form gums and sediment, thus requiring gum test methods and specification requirements.

1934 The first of four fuel standards issued by Subcommittee E on Burner, Diesel, Non-Aviation Gas Turbine, and Marine Fuels — D 396, Specification for Burner Fuels — is issued, covering fuels for fuel-oil burning equipment such as home heating oils. Next will be ASTM D 975, Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils, which will cover diesel fuels starting with its publication in 1948. Prior to this, there has been no widely used specification for diesel engine fuel. The third, ASTM D 2880, Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils, covering non-aviation gas turbine fuels, will be issued in 1970. Lastly, ASTM D 2069, Specification for Marine Fuels, will be issued in 1991.

1935 The first successful passenger airliner, the DC-3, makes its maiden flight.

1935 The first KdF Wagens (to be renamed Volkswagen in 1945) are produced.

1937 ASTM D 445, Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity), is the second of three building blocks of petroleum standardization along with ASTM D 86 (see 1921) and ASTM D 1655 (see 1959). The enormous list of products covered by ASTM D 445 includes jet fuels, aircraft turbine lubricants, marine and domestic fuel oils, diesel fuels, industrial fluid lubricants, automotive and heavy-duty engine oils, heat transfer fluids, hydraulic oils and many more. ASTM D 445 will also become ISO Standard 3104.

1937 Competition among automobile manufacturers leads to engines with higher and higher compression ratios, requiring higher-octane gasolines. This leads to process development in the industry, e.g., cracking, reforming, isomerization, etc. In D02, this leads to changes in the gasoline specification and the first appearance of ASTM D 439, Specification for Gasoline, showing three types of gasoline based on volatility and further breakdown according to antiknock characteristics. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission will later require the posting of the Antiknock Index in 1979. ASTM D 439 will be discontinued in 1991 and replaced with D 4814, Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel.

1940 Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) develops catalytic reforming to produce higher octane gasoline and create toluene for TNT. Higher octane gasoline is used in American and British fighter planes.

1940 The minimum motor octane numbers in ASTM D 439 (see 1937) are raised: premium, 77; regular, 70; and less-than-regular, 50.

1940 ASTM D 566, Method for Dropping Point of Lubricating Grease, is published. It is the basic test method for determining the temperature at which the thickener in grease melts. This method, along with D 217, Method for Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease, and D 128, Methods for Analysis of Grease, forms the core of tests performed routinely on greases by all producers and users around the world.

1941 ASTM D 613, Method for Ignition Quality of Diesel Fuels by the Cetane Method, is issued to provide a better measure of fuel ignition properties. Subsequently, methods will be developed for estimating cetane numbers using a calculated “cetane index” when engine test data are not available, including: D 976, Methods for Calculated Cetane Index of Distillate Fuels (1966), and D 4737, Method for Calculated Cetane Index by Four Variable Equation (1987).

1942 Twenty-four-inch [610 mm] and 20-inch [508 mm] diameter pipelines, respectively known as the “Big Inch” and the “Little Big Inch,” are built to transfer petroleum crude oil from the oil fields of east Texas and refined petroleum products from the Gulf Coast to refining and distribution areas near New York, N.Y., and Philadelphia, Pa. The lines are a major part of the U.S. war effort and represent a significant achievement in pipeline technology in terms of sheer size and scope.

1942 First publication of the acid and base number method for petroleum products, ASTM D 664, Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration, which provides information on the quality or oxidative state of the oil.

1946 ASTM D02 Subcommittee J on Aviation Fuels is formed to develop an aviation gasoline specification. This results in the issuance of ASTM D 910, Specification for Aviation Gasolines, which specifies five grades of aviation gasoline differing in lead content, color and octane numbers.

1947 “The Research Method,” D 908, Method of Test for Knock Characteristics of Motor Fuels by the Research Method (see 1933), is issued. It will be replaced in 1968 by D 2699, Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel.

1947 Committee D02 Subcommittee 1 on Combustion Characteristics is formed, which merges all activities of the National Exchange Group (see 1933) and the relevant ASTM standards development activities.

1947 The International Organization for Standardization and its Technical Committee (ISO/TC) 28 on petroleum products and lubricants are organized. Many ASTM D02 test methods will be used as the basis for test methods developed by ISO/TC 28.

1947 The first off-shore oil well is drilled.

1947 The sound barrier is broken by Charles Yeager.

1948 Gum content in ASTM D 439 (see 1937) is reduced to a maximum of 5 mg/100 mL. An appendix is added regarding the significance of ASTM specifications for motor gasoline.

1948 D02 forms two research divisions, one on combustion characteristics and another on corrosion tests. The following year, eight additional research divisions will be added, the forefathers to the current D02 numbered subcommittees on properties.

1948 Committee D02’s Special Subcommittee on Coordination of Test Methods is formed.

1949 Committee D02’s Special Committee on Extreme Pressure Properties Measurement is formed.

1950 Subcommittee D02.10 on Properties of Petroleum Wax is listed in the ASTM directory for the first time as a joint committee with TAPPI.

1951 D02’s Coordinating Division on Research in Significance of Tests is formed.

1951 ASTM D 1160, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Reduced Pressure, is issued.

1952 Minimum octane numbers are changed in ASTM D 439 (see 1937): premium, 85; regular, 78; and less-than-regular, no limit. The octane number test changes from MON (motor octane number) to RON (research octane number).

1952 The first plenary meeting of ISO/TC 28 on petroleum products and lubricants is held.

1954 ASTM D 1322 is issued as the Smoke Point of Jet Fuels. It will undergo several title changes and, in 1997, D 1322 will become a joint standard with the Institute of Petroleum’s IP 57/95, Smoke Point.

1958 More than a million passengers fly over the Atlantic Ocean, surpassing the total of Atlantic steamship passengers for the first time.

1958 The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration is established.

1958 The first sequence tests for engine oils are published as ASTM Special Technical Publication STP 315, Multi-Cylinder Test Sequences for Evaluating Automotive Engine Oils. STP 509, Single-Cylinder Engine Tests for Evaluating the Performance of Crankcase Lubricants will be published in 1972.

1959 First International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee (ISO/TC) 28 recommendation (standard) is published (ISO/R91-1959 Petroleum measurement tables); this eventually will become ISO 91-1. R91 is based, in part, on IP 200/ASTM D1250, Guide for Petroleum Measurement Tables.

1959 The third building block of petroleum standardization, ASTM D 1655, Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels, is issued (see 1921 and 1937). This will be the exclusive specification for aviation turbine fuel in the United States (about 35 to 40 percent of the world’s aviation fuel), used with other international standards for the “Joint Checklist,” which is used for guidance (except in Russia), representing 75 to 90 percent of the world’s jet fuel.

1960 ASTM D 1660, Method for Thermal Stability of Aviation Turbine Fuels, is published. It is one of the first tests to simulate performance rather than fuel chemistry to define a satisfactory fuel. ASTM D 1660 will be replaced in 1973 by ASTM D 3241, Test Method for Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Turbine Fuels (JFTOT Procedure), which helps make ASTM D 1655, Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels, a performance specification and not simply a specification for composition.

1960 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is formed by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.

1963 Honda sells its first cars.

1964 Since the 1950s, the four-ball test machine has been used. The first ASTM four-ball wear test, D 2266, Method for Wear Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four-Ball Method), is issued this year. A fluid lubricant version, D 4172, Method for Wear Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method), will appear in 1982. D 5183, Method for Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Lubricants Using the Four-Ball Wear Test Machine, will later be developed for determining coefficients of friction to assess performance differences due to friction modifiers used in energy conserving motor oils and fluid lubricants.

1965 Hearings on leaded gasoline begin in the U.S. Senate.

1966 ASTM D 2533, Test Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels, is published.

1966 The Timken extreme pressure test machine, developed in the 1930s for evaluating the load carrying properties of greases, is used in the new ASTM D 2509, Method for Measurement of Load-Carrying Capacity of Lubricating Grease (Timken Method). The method for fluids, D 2782, Method for Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Timken Method), will issue in 1969. These methods will be used in almost every industrial application where extreme pressure is required.

1967 ASTM D 2602, Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature Using the Cold-Cranking Simulator, is issued. Earlier in this decade, a cold cranking simulator laboratory test was developed. An ASTM round robin study shows that an excellent correlation is obtained between actual engine cranking data and laboratory test data obtained with 18 reference oils.

1967 The first standard four-ball extreme pressure method, ASTM D 2596, Method for Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of Lubricating Grease, is published to evaluate the extreme pressure properties of greases required for heavy duty applications. A similar method for fluid lubricants, D 2783, Method for Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Four-Ball Method), will be published in 1969.

1967 ASTM D 2625, Method for Endurance (Wear) Life and Load Carrying Capacity of Solid Film Lubricants (Falex Pin and Vee Method), is issued and is the first standardized ASTM test using the pin and vee block for the measurement of anti-wear and endurance (life) of bonded solid film lubricants. The pin and vee block test machine, more commonly known as the Falex tester or Faville tester, named after its inventor, was developed in 1927 as a salesman’s demonstration tool for fluid lubricants containing anti-wear and extreme pressure additives.

1967 The U.S. Congress passes the Clean Air Act, which authorizes planning grants to state air pollution control agencies.

1967 The ASTM X-ray fluorescence instrumental method, D 2622, Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, for the determination of sulfur in fuels, becomes widely popular, replacing earlier old-fashioned, time-consuming, and labor-intensive wet chemistry methods. D 2622 can detect parts per million quantities of sulfur as opposed to only higher levels of sulfur. This standard will become a mandatory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method for sulfur regulations for both gasoline and diesel.

1969 The U. S. Interior Department nets $900,220,590 in bids for Alaskan oil leases. The sale of oil on 179 tracts of the North Slope totaling 450,858 acres opens the arctic for oil exploration.

1970 The president of General Motors urges the elimination of lead additives from gasoline in order to allow the use of catalytic converters.

1970 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is formed.

1970 ASTM D 2892, Test Method for Distillation of Crude Petroleum (15-Theoretical Plate Column), is issued.

1970 The Society of Automotive Engineers requests Subcommittee D02.07 on Flow Properties to develop a test method to determine the ability of an oil to flow to the engine oil pump and to critical engine parts under actual engine-use conditions. The result of this work will be the issuance of ASTM D 3829, Test Method for Predicting the Borderline Pumping Temperature of Engine Oil, in 1979, which will later be modified to incorporate a proper cooling cycle, and ASTM D 4684, Method for Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature.

1970 The volatility class designations are changed to A through E in ASTM D 439 (see 1937) and the 50 percent and 90 percent evaporation point limits now vary with volatility class. The appearance or workmanship limit of clear and bright is added.

1970 ASTM D 2882, Method for Indicating the Wear Characteristics of Petroleum and Non-Petroleum Hydraulic Fluids in a Constant Volume Vane Pump, is issued and will become the standard for wear testing both in North America and Europe (see 2003).

1972 By this year, none of the separate D02 divisions exist. All activities are now listed under: Technical Divisions (lettered, product subcommittees), Research and Development (numbered, property subcommittees), and Coordinating Subcommittees.

1972 New test methods using instrumental approach are now in wide use for the determination of heteroatoms (e.g., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine) in petroleum products and lubricants — which used to be done by wet chemistry methods. These included gravimetric or titrimetric finishes, for example:
• D 129, Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General Bomb Method);
• D 808, Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum Products (Bomb Method);
• D 1266 (see 1921);
• D 1552, Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method); and
• D 3228, Test Method for Total Nitrogen in Lubricating Oils and Fuel Oils by Modified Kjeldahl Method).
The older methods required larger sample amounts, manual labor and had poor detection limits. The newer methods use milligram amounts of sample, complete the analysis in a few minutes, and are applicable to trace amounts of these elements. Examples of such instrumental heteroatoms determination include:
• D 3120, Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry;
• D 3246, Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Gas by Oxidative Microcoulometry;
• D 4045, Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry;
• D 4629, Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection;
• D 5291, Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants;
• D 5453, Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Motor Fuels and Oils by Ultraviolet Fluorescence;
• D 5762, Test Method for Nitrogen in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat-Inlet Chemiluminescence;
• D 6667, Test Method for Determination of Total Volatile Sulfur in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum Gases by Ultraviolet Fluorescence; and
• D 6920, Test Method for Total Sulfur in Naphthas, Distillates, Reformulated Gasolines, Diesels, Biodiesels, and Motor Fuels by Oxidative Combustion and Electrochemical Detection.
Most of these newer methods are widely used in industry labs worldwide.

1972 The U.S. Congress passes the Clean Water Act.

1972 Landmark publication of Research Report (RR) D2:1004, a standardized statistical protocol for estimating repeatability and reproducibility for petroleum test methods.

1972 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announces all gasoline stations must carry “nonleaded” gasoline, but will delay setting standards until 1973.

1973 A worldwide energy crisis created by the Arab Oil Embargo begins on Oct. 17 and will continue until March 1974. The crisis leads to greater interest in renewable energy and greater pressure to discover and develop new North American oil resources. It will also result in a revolution in automobile manufacture by replacing the large energy-consuming vehicles of the 1950s and ‘60s with more compact and energy-efficient cars. The embargo will also lead to the creation of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. By the early ‘80s, oil will be in surplus and prices will fall.

1973 The U. S. Congress approves the Alaska oil pipeline.

1974 ASTM D 3244, Practice for Utilization of Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications, is issued. This standard will become indispensable when applying precision data to test methods.

1975 “Mobil 1” is introduced as the first fully synthetic motor oil nationally marketed in the United States.

1975 Catalytic converters are introduced in many automobiles to meet emissions standards established by the U.S. government.

1976 The ASTM Test Monitoring Center is established at Carnegie Mellon University to monitor the test methods of Subcommittee B on Automotive Lubricants.

1976 ASTM D 3520, Method for Quenching Time of Heat-Treating Fluids (Magnetic Quenchometer Method), is issued. This method will go on to be one of the most important methods in the heat-treating industry for classifying cooling characteristics of quench oils.

1977 The U. S. Department of Energy is created.

1978 The U.S. government begins limiting the amount of lead permitted in gasoline. The purpose of this regulation is to prevent deterioration of the platinum catalysts in catalytic converters. By June 1979 nearly half of all U.S. gasoline will be unleaded.

1978 The U.S. Energy Tax Act creates a federal ethanol tax incentive of 5 cents per gallon, expanding the use of ethanol in the United States.

1978 Chlorofluorocarbons, or freons, are banned as spray propellants in the United States because of fears about holes in the ozone layer.

1979 The classic flash-point methods, ASTM D 56 (see 1918), D 92, Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester, and D 93, Test Methods for Flash-Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, were dynamic methods performed by heating samples and checking vapors with an ignition source at specified temperature intervals until a flash was noted. This year, the equilibrium method, D 3828, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Tester, utilizes a fresh sample for every temperature tested.

1980 The National Security Act of 1980 mandates that all gasoline be blended with a minimum of 10 percent grain alcohol, or “gasohol.” The requirement will subsequently be scuttled.

1980 ASTM D 3764, Practice for Validation of Process Stream Analyzer Systems, is issued and is the first D02 practice dealing with the validation of process analyzers.

1981 ASTM Special Technical Publication (STP) 751, Distillate Fuel Stability and Cleanliness, is issued.

1982 Subcommittee D02.07 begins work on a laboratory test method to evaluate low-temperature pumpability, that will result in the issuance of D 5133, Method for Low Temperature, Low Shear Rate, Viscosity/ Temperature Dependence of Lubricating Oils Using a Temperature-Scanning Technique, in 1991. D 5133 will go on to be used as a required OEM specification by the International Lubricant and Standardization Approval Committee (ILSAC) in their ILSAC GF-2 specification.

1984 ASTM Special Technical Publication (STP) 878, Marine Fuels, is issued.

1985 The U.S. government cancels the “synfuels” project due to low prices.

1985 The first standard specification for engine oils, ASTM D 4485, Specification for Performance of Engine Oils, is issued.

1986 The primary phase-out of leaded gasoline in the United States is completed.

1986 ASTM Subcommittee J on Aviation Fuels organizes the first technical training course on aviation fuels. By 2004, this course will have been taught more than 56 times to more than 1,600 students in 13 countries and 20 cities. This is the first of the ASTM Technical and Professional Training Program courses.

1987 The first standard specification for two-stroke cycle gasoline engine oils, ASTM D 4681, Specification for Lubricants for Two-Stroke-Cycle Spark-Ignition Gasoline Engines (TSC-4), and the first standard engine test method for two-stroke cycle gasoline engine oils, ASTM D 4682, Specification for Miscibility with Gasoline and Fluidity of Two-Stroke-Cycle Gasoline Engine Lubricants, are issued.

1987 Subcommittee B on Automotive Lubricants is the first to implement facilitation of its monitored standards by forming a section and paying facilitators out of funds derived from reference oil sales for monitored test methods.

1988 To address the need for specifications relating to gasoline-ethanol blends, D02 issues D 4806, Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. To further address the need to cover other oxygenates and properties such as cetane number, metal corrosion, water tolerance, drivability, and federal regulations, ASTM D 4814, Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, is also issued this year. For the first time, D02 recognizes an engine fuel standard not based solely on a straight hydrocarbon product (gasoline). These methods will be followed by others that address automotive spark-ignition engine fuel performance.

1988 ASTM Special Technical Publication (STP) 1005, Distillate Fuel: Contamination, Storage, and Handling, is issued.

1989 ASTM D 4953, Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method), is issued in response to problems with water interacting with gasoline-oxygenate blends when testing in accordance with D 323 (see 1930).

1989 Although used for 30 years for the development of industrial and automotive fluid lubricants, the first standardized FZG gear test is ASTM D 4998, Test Method for Evaluating Wear Characteristics of Tractor Hydraulic Fluids, issued this year, which evaluates gear wear applicable to tractor hydraulic fluids. The FZG gear test machine is the only ASTM test machine that uses an actual gear set as the consumable test piece. In 1991, ASTM D 5182, Test Method for Evaluating the Scuffing (Scoring) Load Capacity of Oils, which evaluates gear oils, will be published. By 2004, this test will be under consideration by the military as a replacement for its Ryder gear test.

1989 ASTM D02.92, the Coordinating Subcommittee on Interlaboratory Crosscheck Programs (ILCP), is established to address laboratories’ desire and need to participate in certification programs that evaluate laboratory proficiency, also called interlaboratory crosschecks (see 1993).

1989 ASTM D 4950, Classification and Specification for Automotive Service Greases, is approved and published. The approval of this method culminates approximately 20 years of joint effort by ASTM, the National Lubricating Grease Institute, and the Society of Automotive Engineers to develop a standard that will be analogous to the American Petroleum Institute engine-oil classification. Several additional test methods are developed and standardized as part of the effort to develop D 4950.

1989 ASTM D 4951, Method for Determination of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), is issued. D 4951 will become one of the two most widely used methods for such analysis in virtually all oil analysis laboratories worldwide, along with D 5185, Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, which will be published in 1991. The use of these two standards will reduce the time required for multi-element analysis from several days, using wet chemistry, to a few minutes, using the ICP-AES methods.

1990 The first standard engine test for engine oils, ASTM D 5119, Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the CRC L-38 Spark-Ignition Engine, is published.

1990 The D02.93 Coordinating Subcommittee on International Standards and Related Activities is formed.

1990 ASTM Committees D02 and E13 on Molecular Spectroscopy and Chromatography kick off a collaboration on multivariate infrared analyzers.

1990 A worldwide round robin is conducted to develop a cold-cranking simulator test very close to the same temperatures actually used for the engine-cranking test. This work results in the issuance of ASTM D 5293, Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils between 5° and -30°C Using the Cold-Cranking Simulator. This helps the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to establish meaningful low-temperature cranking limits for SAE W grade oils.

1991 ASTM D 5188, Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Determination of Fuels (Evacuated Chamber Method), D 5190, Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Automatic Method), and D 5191, Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method), are issued.

1992 ASTM D 5236, Method for Distillation of Heavy Hydrocarbon Mixtures (Vacuum Potstill Method), is published.

1992 Hydraulic fluids are often used in environments where flammability of the fluid is a safety concern, therefore, ASTM D 5306, Method for Linear Flame Propagation Rate of Lubricating Oils and Hydraulic Fluids, is approved. This standard measures the propagation rate of a flame and is an indication of the relative ignitability of the fluid.

1993 D2PP Software for calculating statistical precision obtained in the interlaboratory studies conducted in D02 committees is published. Virtually all D02 crosschecks use this software for data analysis. This is one of the most important milestones in the committee’s history.

1993 ASTM D 5482, Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method-Atmospheric), is published.

1993 The Interlaboratory Crosscheck Program (see 1989) is launched, and a major milestone is achieved as evidenced by the wide popularity of this program around the world. It is truly an international program with 45 percent of the participating laboratories from outside the United States. By 2004, more than 700 laboratories, many of which are from outside of North America, will have participated in 18 programs.

1994 The first standardized test for evaluating metalworking fluids using actual metalworking tools, ASTM D 5619, Method for Comparing Metal Removal Fluids Using the Tapping Torque Test Machine, is issued.

1994 The Data Communications Committee is formed within the D02 Subcommittee B Test Monitoring Board to standardize industry protocols for electronic data transfer.

1994 E 1655, Practice for Calibration of Multivariate IR Analyzers, is the first fruit of the D02/E13 collaboration (see 1990).

1994 Committee D02 begins to add mandatory quality-control sections to numerous standards to improve the data reliability in routine petroleum products testing.

1994 ASTM Subcommittee D02.04 on Hydrocarbon Analysis plays a key role in developing new or improved test methods to meet the gasoline regulatory requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board. The endeavor includes large multi-method round robins to study test methods, the writing of new test methods, and revision of existing test methods. Close attention is paid to improving the precision of test methods. The test methods developed from this effort include:
• D 5769, Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasolines by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry — standardizes total aromatics analysis in the United States and will be adopted by the EPA.
• D 3606, Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography — precision of method for benzene improved; will be adopted by the EPA.
• D 4815, Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, Tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography — rewritten, and precision increased by a factor of three for MTBE and other oxygenates; will be adopted by CARB and allowed by the EPA as an alternative method.
• D 1319, Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption — new precision obtained for oxygenated gasolines; method also improved by eliminating depentanization step and inclusion of guidelines on how to improve method optimally; will be used by CARB for a time and will remain in use by the EPA for total olefins and alternative total aromatics.
• D 5599, Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection — new GC/OFID method for oxygenates developed; will become the EPA’s primary method for total oxygenates.
• D 5580, Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection — new method for benzene and total aromatics developed with excellent precision; will be adopted by CARB for total aromatics and benzene regulation.

1994 Subcommittee D02.12 on Environmental Standards for Lubricants is formed to address critical problems in the industry by developing standards or modifying existing methods for the measurement of new areas of lubricant performance such as lubricant classification and assessment of biodegradability, ecotoxicity and bioaccumulation. The subcommittee will develop standards such as D 6081, Practice for Aquatic Toxicity Testing of Lubricants: Sample Preparation and Results Interpretation; D 6384, Terminology Relating to Biodegradability and Ecotoxicity of Lubricants; and ASTM D 6731, Method for Determining the Aerobic, Aquatic Biodegradability of Lubricants or Lubricant Components in a Closed Respirometer.

1995 First full-scale test for gear oils, ASTM D 5704, Method for Evaluation of the Thermal and Oxidative Stability of Lubricating Oils Used for Manual Transmissions and Final Drive Axles, is developed.

1995 A symposium on the tribology of hydraulic pump testing is held on Dec. 4-5. Papers from the symposium will be published in Special Technical Publication (STP) 1310, Tribology of Hydraulic Pump Testing (see 1999).

1996 Eco-evaluated fluids have become a major topic in the fluid power industry and by this year two very complex standards are approved: ASTM D 6006, Guide for Assessing Biodegradability of Hydraulic Fluids, and D 6046, Classification of Hydraulic Fluids for Environmental Impact.

1997 The first standard test for the direct measurement of the effect of engine oils on fuel economy, ASTM D 6202, Method for Automotive Engine Oils on the Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in the Sequence VIA Spark Ignition Engine, is issued.

1997 Coordinating Subcommittees 94 and 95 are created out of CS 91, the General Coordinating Committee. CS 94 is the Coordinating Subcommittee on Quality Assurance and Statistics, which serves as the central resource on statistics and quality assurance practices for D02. The principle function of CS 95 Subcommittee on Terminology is the maintenance of the terminology compendium ASTM D 4175, Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants.

1997 ASTM D 6122, Practice for Validation of Multivariate Process Infrared Spectrophotometers, is issued.

1997 ASTM D 6158, Specification for Mineral Hydraulic Oils, is issued and defines the physical, chemical, and performance requirements of the four more common mineral base hydraulic fluids (HH (non-inhibited refined mineral oil), HL (refined mineral oil with improved rust protection and oxidation stability), HM (improved antiwear properties), and HV (improved viscosity-temperature properties)). This specification was developed over several years and is a significant accomplishment. ASTM D 6158 provides an overview of both the requirements and testing results to be reported.

1997 ASTM D 6200, Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quench Oils by Cooling Curve Analysis, is issued for cooling curve characterization of petroleum-based quench oils. This method will be followed by ASTM D 6482, Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Aqueous Polymer Quenchants by Cooling Curve Analysis with Agitation (Tensi Method), and D 6549, Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants by Cooling Curve Analysis with Agitation (Drayton Unit), which are used for cooling curve characterization of both petroleum and aqueous-polymer quenchants. The latter two standards are the only methods of this kind in the world and are global standards. These methods were developed in collaboration with the Quenching and Cooling Committees of ASM International and International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering.

1997 High VI improved hydraulic fluids often contain high viscosity index improvers, which may shear down with use and reduce the in-service viscosity of the fluid. ASTM D 6080, Practice for Defining the Viscosity Characteristics of Hydraulic Fluids, is developed to address this situation. New fluids are subjected to controlled testing to determine the degraded viscosity and are then reclassified according to viscosities at both low and high temperatures. The advantage of such a system is that users can ascertain if a fluid is sufficiently shear-stable for their application.

1998 The publication of ASTM D 6299, Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance, provides a standardized approach and control chart techniques for D02 test methods for quality analysis.

1998 Publication of ASTM D 6300, Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants, which is a conversion of Research Report (RR) D02:1007 methodology into ASTM standard practice format; this standard is technically harmonized with ISO 4259.

1998 Subcommittee D02.14 on Stability and Cleanliness of Liquid Fuels is formed. The subcommittee’s oxidative stability tests are related to storage stability. The group also oversees thermal stability, compatibility and cleanliness tests for fuels. The other subcommittee dealing exclusively with various aspects of stability is Subcommittee D02.09 on Oxidation, which covers lubricants, greases and hydraulic fluids.

1999 A symposium on hydraulic failure analysis is held Dec. 5-6; papers from the symposium will be published in Special Technical Publication (STP) 1339, Hydraulic Failure Analysis: Fluids, Components, and System Effects.

1999 ASTM D 6469, Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems, is published.

1999 ASTM D 6377, Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure of Crude Oil: VPCRx (Expansion Method), and D 6378, Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPx) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method), are issued. ASTM D 6450, Test Method for Flash Point by Continuously Closed Cup (CCCFP) Tester, is also issued, which does not rely on the use of the human eye to detect the flash point and instead, utilizes the pressure increase when a flash occurs.

2000 The European Union bans leaded gasoline.

2000 A new interlaboratory cross-check program for crude oils is launched. Analysis of crude oils is more challenging than most refined products, and their addition to the program represents a major step in improving the precision of test methods.

2000 The first D02 test method that uses intermediate precision rather than repeatability in its precision statement is approved and published: ASTM D 6593, Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions.

2001 Publication of ASTM D 6708, Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of the Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material, a standardized approach to assess relative bias between standard test methods.

2001 One of the largest interlaboratory studies ever undertaken in D02 is conducted to determine low levels of sulfur in gasolines and in diesels. It involves four test methods, 70 laboratories and 32 samples. More than 6,000 data points are collected. The new precision data obtained is expected to define the regulatory compliance for low levels of sulfur of fuels in the future.

2001 ASTM D 6666, Guide for Evaluation of Aqueous Polymer Quenchants and D 6710, Guide for Evaluation of Hydrocarbon-Based Quench Oil, are issued; they are the only standards of this kind available covering both petroleum and aqueous-polymer quenchants.

2002 Publication of D 6792, Guide for a Quality System in Petroleum Products and Lubricants Testing Laboratories, the first total quality management standard for petroleum labs. This is the first standard of its kind issued by D02 for benchmarking a laboratory’

2002 ASTM D 6546, Test Methods and Suggested Limits for Determining the Compatibility of Elastomer Seals for Industrial Hydraulic Fluid Applications, is approved. This guide relates to the compatibility of hydraulic fluids with O-ring elastomers, which are used extensively for sealing in hydraulic components. The information from these tests can be used to anticipate expected service quality.

2002 To help fluid users and developers understand the suitability of a fluid for its intended use, ASTM D 6813, Guide for Performance Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids for Piston Pumps, is published. This is a very thorough and useful guide for selecting test methods that are available to determine specific performance characteristics.

2003 ASTM D 6973, Method for Indicating Wear Characteristics of Petroleum Hydraulic Fluids in a High Pressure Constant Volume Vane Pump - 35 VQ, is approved, which uses a larger and higher-pressure vane pump relative to the vane pump used in ASTM D 2882 (see 1970).

2002 Subcommittee D02.96 on In-Service Lubricant Testing and Condition Monitoring Services is formed.

2003 Publication of the Fuels and Lubricants Handbook: Technology, Properties, Performance, and Testing. This near-encyclopedic tome provides in-depth discussion of a large range of fuels and lubricants and the test methods used in determining their properties and performance characteristics. It is the most comprehensive treatise on the subject to have been published in more than 40 years.

2004 D2PP software is issued as an adjunct to D 6300 (see 1998), as standardized controlled software to execute the D 6300 statistical algorithms.

2004 A new interlaboratory cross-check program for sulfur determination of ultra-low sulfur in diesel fuels is launched. It will use four methods designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for regulatory compliance, and will use samples with 15 parts per million or less of sulfur. As ultra-low sulfur fuels become mandatory on the roadways, the importance of this new initiative is sure to grow.

Posted June 2004

Until recently, George E. TOTTEN, Ph.D., was a senior research scientist at Union Carbide Corporation, where he was responsible for its R&D programs in metalworking quenchants, hydraulic fluids, and exploratory research programs in lubrication fundamentals. Currently, Totten is president of G.E. Totten and Associates LLC, a research and consulting firm specializing in thermal processing and industrial lubrication problems and related equipment supply. Totten has approximately 400 publications to his name, including several ASTM publications.

Acknowledgements:

The author wishes to thank David Smith, Ed White and Paul Strigner for their invaluable guidance and editorial assistance and members of ASTM Committee D02, as well as other experts in the field of petroleum products and lubricants, for their assistance with the development of this timeline.

 
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