Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions.
These reference radiographs illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in high-strength copper-base, nickel-copper, and related alloy castings.
These reference radiographs are reproductions of original radiographs that contain indications of discontinuities in sand-cast manganese-nickel-aluminum bronze-alloy plates. These discontinuities are representative of those found in narrow freezing range (formerly "high shrinkage"), high-strength copper and nickel-copper alloys.
These reference radiographs consist of forty-five 5 by 7-in. (127 by 178-mm) nominal size reproductions (twenty made for 1-in. (25.4-mm) plate castings exposed with low voltage X-rays for thicknesses up to and including 2 in.) and twenty-five made from 3-in. (76-mm) plate castings exposed with 2 MV X-rays or Cobalt 60 isotope for thicknesses greater than 2 in. up to and including 6 in.
Adjunct to E272 Reference Radiographs for High-Strength Copper-Base and Nickel-Copper Alloy Castings